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In addition, a subset of the participants had actigraphy recordings to measure light exposure, activity, and sleep. A total of 21 participants had actigraphy recordings, including 10 office workers in windowless workplaces and 11 office workers in workplaces with windows. Participants were selected for actigraphy based on a convenience sample with volunteers from office locations with and without windows.
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Workers with windows in the workplace reported better scores on vitality (A) and role limitation due to physical problems (B) on the SF-36 compared to workers with no windows in the workplace. * p
These health and performance consequences may affect perceived health related quality of life, as measured by the SF-36. Our results from the SF-36 show workplaces without windows have significantly negative impact on workers' role limitation due to physical problems (RP) and vitality (VT), as well as a marginal negative impact on workers' mental health compared to workplaces with windows. These results are similar to the findings of a study that examined five dimensions (GH, V, SF, RE, and MH) of the SF-36 and found that the scores of vitality (VT), social functioning (SF), and mental health (MH) for those working in dark offices are lower than scores for those working in offices with more lighting.33 Another study focusing on predictors of burnout among nurses found that exposure to at least three hours of daylight per day resulted in less stress and higher satisfaction at work.34 While those with more daylight in the workplace also have higher daily physical activity during work hours and workday evenings, our analysis cannot determine whether the workers get more activity because of the daylight or whether they have more daylight exposure due to activity. There was no difference in physical activity between the two groups during free days despite differences in light exposure during free days, and correlations between physical activity levels and light exposure during work hours, workday evenings, and free days did not suggest a strong relationship. Nonetheless, it remains a possibility that differences in activity level may influence light exposure and also sleep, yet the tendency towards higher activity levels indicates workers with more daylight exposure may have fewer physical problems or complaints regarding vitality in parallel with our findings on subjective measures of the SF-36.
Prior to this study, little was known about how architectural features such as windows impact light exposure and subsequent effects on physical and mental factors. Via examination of the influence of office settings with and without windows on office workers' light exposure, sleep, physical activity, and quality of life via actigraphy and subjective measures, this research study shows office workers in workplaces with windows may have more light exposure, better sleep quality, more physical activity, and higher quality of life ratings than office workers in work-places without windows.
This study has some limitations that could be addressed in future work. For example, the small sample size and sampling methodology could be addressed in a larger study. Participants for this study were volunteers based on a convenience sample, which may have introduced bias. The amount of light in an office may be associated with position or level of experience in the workplace; however, we found no differences in age, race, gender, years at current job, and duration of working in current light levels between workers in office settings with and without windows. We also do not have data from the participants on caffeine use, measurements of stress levels, and chronotype, which is of interest given the outcome measures of this study. Although we observed no differences in sleep onset time between the two groups of workers on workday nights and free day nights, the possibility remains that chronotype, circadian timing, or other behavioral measures may be responsible for some of the differences observed in the two groups of workers. This warrants further investigation. The objective measures of wrist actigraphy support the subjective findings; however, actigraphy data were collected for only 21 of the 49 total participants. Furthermore, although actigraphy has reasonable validity and reliability and is often used as a sleep assessment tool in sleep medicine, this methodology has some limitations. Sleep diaries were not collected in this study, and therefore were unavailable for the actigraphy analysis. For sleep-wake periods, actigraphy has low specificity for detecting wakefulness within sleep periods. Actigraphy is also neither sensitive to low light levels nor calibrated for artificial fluorescent lighting. As such, light exposure measurements for workers in office settings without windows may be an underestimate. In addition, since light exposure data are collected from the wrist, there is the possibility that error may be introduced by covering of the actiwatch, and therefore, reported values may not be fully representative of the light levels reaching the retina. Our data collection methods also do not allow for differentiation between natural daylight and artificial lighting, and do not allow for analysis of specific wavelengths of light exposure. Future studies would benefit from using devices that collect spectral distribution for comparison between the two workplace groups. Lastly, additional benefits of workplaces with windows, such as the roles of views and other dimensions, were not taken into account in this study. Views may bring some psychological dimension while daylight may have physiological effects. Future research may be able to dissociate the different roles of views and daylighting of windows. This can be done, for example, by exploring the differences between skylights that provide very limited views to the sky only versus side windows. Despite these limitations, significant differences are seen with light exposure levels and subsequent measures of sleep quality and physical and mental well-being.
16 September 2014: The City of Udine, in Italy, announced a process that will lead to the installation of OpenOffice on 900 municipal desktops, saving the city 360,000 Euro. ZDNet's Raffaele Mastrolonardo has the details.
21 August 2014: The Apache OpenOffice project announces the official release of version 4.1.1. In the Release Notes you can read about all new features, functions and languages. Don't miss to download the new release and find out yourself.
29 April 2014: The Apache OpenOffice project announces the official release of version 4.1.0. In the Release Notes you can read about all new features, functions and languages. Don't miss to download the new release and find out yourself.
When publishing new Windows AMIs, AWS follows a consistent naming scheme. For example, Windows_Server-2012-R2_RTM-English-64Bit-Base-2014.05.20. Look for the date stamp in the AMI name. You find the date stamp (last 8 digits) at the end of the AMI name.
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If you haven't yet, you can check out my overview of the opening WPC keynote in WPC 2014: Microsoft Has a "Challenger Mentality" in Mobile First, Cloud First World. Here, I'll focus just on the Office bits, which of course includes Office 365.
This file contains important information about the Report Generation Toolkit for Microsoft Office, including installation instructions, new features, a partial list of bugs fixed for LabVIEW 2014 Report Generation Toolkit for Microsoft Office, and known issues.
Select HelpFind Examples from LabVIEW to launch the NI Example Finder. LabVIEW examples for the Report Generation Toolkit for Microsoft Office are located in the labview\examples\office directory. You can modify an example VI to fit an application, or you can copy and paste from one or more examples into a VI that you create.
National Instruments LabVIEW 2014 Report Generation Toolkit for Microsoft Office will drop support for Microsoft Windows Vista, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003 as of July 1, 2016. Versions of National Instruments LabVIEW 2014 Report Generation Toolkit for Microsoft Office that ship after July 1, 2016 will not install or run on Windows Vista, Windows XP, or Windows Server 2003. For detailed information about NI application software product life cycles, visit ni.com/info and enter one of the following Info Codes:
Study objective: This research examined the impact of daylight exposure on the health of office workers from the perspective of subjective well-being and sleep quality as well as actigraphy measures of light exposure, activity, and sleep-wake patterns.
Methods: Participants (N = 49) included 27 workers working in windowless environments and 22 comparable workers in workplaces with significantly more daylight. Windowless environment is defined as one without any windows or one where workstations were far away from windows and without any exposure to daylight. Well-being of the office workers was measured by Short Form-36 (SF-36), while sleep quality was measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). In addition, a subset of participants (N = 21; 10 workers in windowless environments and 11 workers in workplaces with windows) had actigraphy recordings to measure light exposure, activity, and sleep-wake patterns.
Results: Workers in windowless environments reported poorer scores than their counterparts on two SF-36 dimensions--role limitation due to physical problems and vitality--as well as poorer overall sleep quality from the global PSQI score and the sleep disturbances component of the PSQI. Compared to the group without windows, workers with windows at the workplace had more light exposure during the workweek, a trend toward more physical activity, and longer sleep duration as measured by actigraphy. 041b061a72